If the purpose of the repoe is to borrow money, it is not technically a loan: the ownership of the securities in question actually comes and goes between the parties involved. Nevertheless, these are very short-term transactions with a guarantee of redemption. As a result, pension and pension agreements are called secured loans, because a group of securities – usually U.S. government bonds – insures the short-term credit contract (as collateral). Thus, in financial statements and balance sheets, repurchase agreements are generally recorded as credits in the debt or deficit column. In a pension agreement, a trader sells securities to a counterparty with the agreement to buy them back at a higher price at a later date. The trader takes short-term measures at a favourable interest rate with a low risk of loss. The transaction is concluded with a reverse-repo. That is, the counterparty resold them as agreed to the trader.
An RRP differs from Buy/Sell Backs in a simple but clear way. Purchase/sale agreements document each transaction separately and provide a clear separation in each transaction. In this way, each transaction can be legally isolated, without the other transaction being fully feasible. On the other hand, the RRPs have legally documented every step of the agreement under the same treaty and guarantee availability and right at every stage of the agreement. Finally, the warranty in an RRP, although the security is essentially acquired, usually never changes the physical location or actual property. If the seller is late to the buyer, the warranties must be physically transferred. When the desk conducts open market transactions, it sells securities held in the Open Market Account (SOMA) to eligible RRP counterparties with an asset repurchase agreement on the specified RRP due date. As a result, the soma portfolio remains of the same size, as securities sold temporarily in pension transactions continue to be accounted for as SOMA assets in accordance with generally accepted accounting standards, but the transaction defers some of the federal reserve`s debt on deposits (also known as bank reserves) to the withdrawal of deposits while the transactions are outstanding. These RRP operations may apply overnight or for a specified period of time. The counterparty earns interest on the transaction in the form of the higher price of the sale of the securities to the trader.
The counterparty also receives the temporary use of the securities. Treasury or treasury bonds, corporate and treasury bonds, government bonds and equities can all be used as “guarantees” in a repurchase transaction. However, unlike a secured loan, the right to securities is transferred from the seller to the buyer. Coupons (interest payable to the owner of the securities) that mature while the pension buyer owns the securities are usually passed directly on the seller of securities. This may seem counter-intuitive, given that the legal ownership of the guarantees during the pension agreement belongs to the purchaser. Rather, the agreement could provide that the buyer will receive the coupon, with the money to be paid in the event of a buyback being adjusted as compensation, although this is rather typical of the sale/buyback.